University rankings are ranks of advanced education institutes using combinations of factors. Ranking is also done to particular programs, departments and schools. This process done by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments and researchers. These rankings consider measures of wealth, research quality and students choices. Ranking of universities can be within a single country or internationally. However, the increasing diversity of ranking methodologies has accompanied critics demonstrating lack of consensus in the field. This article will focus on major university ranking bodies which include Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankingsand QS World University Rankings and Web metrics.
ARWU (academic ranking of world universities is compiled by a Chinese firm, Shanghai Ranking of consultancy that has been rating universities since 2003. It is funded by the Chinese government with a purpose to measure the gap between Chinese and international universities. ARWU has its own criteria of ranking higher education institutions, for instance, among other criteria used, ARWU includes the number of academic awards winners from a certain university, and it does not depend on surveys and school submissions. The Times Higher Education world rankings is a UK publication uses a 13 distinct performance indicators. It happens to be the most influential ranking in instituting the status order of world universities.
SQ world universities ranking by subjects use data from wide range of subject matter on reputation and research citation. The ranking covers thirty subjects that are provided on various universities. Two hundred top universities are highlighted to demonstrate the specialist strengths of universities globally. Under subject ranking different disciplines are grouped under arts and humanities, Engineering and technology, life science and medicine, natural sciences and social sciences. The recent QS ranking of world universities that were done in 2014 emphasized on 202 universities. It indicated that amongst the top universities in one of the engineering field, 41 were found to be from US, 18 came from UK, 13 in Australia, 10 from Japan, 13 from china, 9 came from Germany, Canada, South Korea, Taiwan and Spain each contributed 8, India and Italy contributed 7 each and Malaysia and Sweden were represented by % universities each.
The Massachusetts Institutes of Technology shown above was ranked the top in electrical engineering in 2014. The other leading university in the field of electrical engineering is The University of Cambridge.
The criteria of ranking universities by regions groups the Universities based on their location in the globe. They are classified on their quality in the particular region in the world or in a given country. There are other factors that are considered when classifying universities into regions such as regional features, language and the basic interest of the university.
The classification of universities has led to debates due to different perspectives of ranking the universities based on their performance. The quality of the grandaunts produced by various universities is evaluated by how employers prefer grandaunts from certain universities to others. Also quality of research articles that are presented by the universities in different fields also suggest how advanced the university is. It is also worth noting that the ranking is intended to put a challenge to all universities in the world so that they can aim at becoming better every day by enhancing their technology.